the cause of the pruritis in CKD (Chronic kidney disease) patients

hyperkalemia
 uremia
 hyerphosphatemia
 hypernatrmia

the amount of fluid filterd urine from the blood into the capsule per minute is called

glomerular fixation rate
 glomerular filtraton rate
 gluteal filtration rate
 glonecular rate

three region of kideny are

cortex, medulla, peritonium
 cortex, medulla, pelvis
 cortex, mediastinum, pelvis
 omentum, medulla , pelvis

each kidney consist of

ten thousands nephron
 1 billion nephron
 1 million nephron
 thousand nephron

renal stone in the pelvic portion of kidney cause

block to afferent arterioles
 block to effernt arterioles
 affect drainage of urine from kidney
 prevent urine concertration capacity

comman type of stone seen in kidney is

calcium stone
 oxalate stones
 pyruvate stones
 mixed struvite stones

cause of pain in urolithiasis is

pressure exerted by the stone
 movement of stone
 decreased water intake
 disintegrated of stone

high oxalate containing food items include

potato chips
 pea nut
 chocolate
 All of the above

clinical menifestation related to renal calculi include

hematuria
 frequent need to urine
 urinating small amounts of urine
 All of the above

PH of normal urine

slightly alkaline
 slightly acidic
 highly alkaline
 highly acidic

oliguria means

more urine at night time
 urine output of less than 100 ml in 24 hr
 urine output of at least 100 ml in 2 hr
 urine output less than 400 mlo in 24 hr

risk factor for urinary calculi is

hyperthyrodism
 hypothyrodism
 hyperparathyrodism
 BOTH A and B

structure involved in blood PH regulation is

kidney
 blood plasma
 lungs
 All of the above

in a client with diabetes insipidus urine specific gravity will

elevatad
 decreased
 normal
 cant measure

comman clniical feature of renal carcinoma is

dysuria
 pain less hematuria
 urgency
 erythema

pre-renal failure cause means

interference with renal perfusion
 interference with renal function
 obstruction in urine flow
 All of the above

intra renal failure cause means

interference with renal perfusion
 interference with renal function
 obstruction in urine flow
 All of the above

post renal failure cause means

interference with renal perfusion
 interference with renal function
 obstruction in urine flow
 All of the above

frequency of urine at night is called as

dysuria
 nocturia
 oligouria
 anuria

radiation therapy to treat the cancer of kidney can cause damage to

liver
 spleen
 adrenal glands
 intestine

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